Because research and theory can provide only a general direction for classroom practice, Questioning Sequences in the Classroom goes one step further to translate that research into applications for questioning in schools. Specifically, this book suggests a unique strategy for classroom questioning: questioning sequences. Research indicates that the intentional use of targeted questions in a coordinated sequence is an effective way to elicit students' prior knowledge, prompt the discovery of new information, and deepen and extend students' learning in all content areas.
Chapter 1 reviews history, research and theory relevant to classroom questioning practices. One of the major conclusions of the chapter is that individual questions do not promote deep understanding and higher cognition as effectively as questioning sequences. In this book, the authors present questioning sequences in four phases: the detail phase, the category phase, the elaboration phase and the evidence phase. In chapter 2, they describe and exemplify each phase and give teachers concrete and specific guidance about how to immediately implement questioning sequences in their classrooms. Chapter 3 explains how to teach students to glean information from all types of texts to answer questions during each of the four phases of a questioning sequence. To answer questions, students will need to use information from one of two potential sources: prior knowledge or external sources. These external sources might be traditional print texts, graphic texts, multimedia texts, electronic texts, Internet texts or others. Chapter 4 highlights different response techniques that teachers can use when students are responding individually or working in groups to answer questions. The authors also review a number of techniques that teachers can use to facilitate group interaction as students work collaboratively. Finally, chapter 5 gives teachers detailed guidance about how to plan questioning sequences that occur during a single class period or stretch across several classes.
Throughout the book, the authors exemplify various strategies using classroom vignettes. These narratives describe how each strategy might look in a teacher's classroom. This allows readers to see how the suggestions apply to their year level and content area(s). Additionally, appendix B presents examples of questioning sequences based on example standards for each year level P-12. These focus on a variety of content areas, including reading, writing, mathematics and science.
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