Effective classroom formative assessment helps educators make
minute-by-minute, day-by-day instructional decisions, but putting it into
practice requires both a robust collection of techniques and an understanding
of how to use them. In Embedding Formative
Assessment, authors Dylan Wiliam and Siobhan Leahy deliver a clear,
practical guide for teachers, centred on five key strategies for improving
teacher practice and student achievement:
sharing and understanding learning intentions and success criteria
productive discussion and activities that elicit evidence of learning
feedback that moves learners forward
students as learning resources for each other
students as owners of their own learning.
Then, for each strategy, the authors provide an overview of the
strategy and a number of very practical formative assessment techniques for
implementing it in F–12 classrooms. Along with guidance on when and how to use
the specific techniques, they provide tips, cautions and enhancements to
sustain formative assessment. A student reflection form, peer observation form
and self-reflection checklist accompany each strategy.
No known practice is more effective than classroom formative
assessment for producing a significant positive impact on student achievement.
Wiliam and Leahy provide the necessary tips and techniques to put it into